A finish applied to fleece which involves shearing the surface so that the fabric is less likely to pill.
The ability of a fiber or fabric to withstand surface wear and rubbing. the best known test used in the usa is the wyzenbeek method. The most widely accepted in europe is the martindale standard.
Treatment finish for fabrics, which prevents the growth of mold, fungus and bacteria.
A barrier laminated to the back of an upholstery fabric preventing the penetration of fluids into the foam cushioning of a furniture product. This barrier contains antimicrobial agents to provide a safe, hygienic environment for healthcare projects.
A variation of plain weave in which 2 or more yarns in both the warp and weft are woven side by side to resemble a basket.
A woven fabric constructed to show pronounced rounded cords in the warp direction with sunken lines between them. used in trousers, uniforms, hats, upholstery.
A general term for a fabric with a surface texture of small, uniform spots that suggest bird’s eyes. can be woven or knit. 2 a design that suggests a bird’s eyes.
Chemical treatment to remove impurities and whiten the fabric. it can be done either in preparation for dyeing and finishing or to obtain clean whites in finished fabric.
A hand printing method using wood, metal, or linoleum blocks. the design is carved on the blocks , one block for each color. the dye is applied to the block which is pressed or hammered against the fabric.
Refers to a print in which a large area of uniform color is printed the printed ground is referred to as the blotch.
A fine tightly woven plain weave fabric with a faint rib . usually of cotton or cotton blend but can be of any fiber. frequently used in men’s shirts.
A heavy rich- looking jacquard fabric with contrasting surfaces or a multicolor design . used in upholstery ,draperies evening wear.
A finishing process to raise a nap on surface of the fabric using wire brushes or other abrasive materials.
A finishing process to raise a nap on surface of the fabric using wire brushes or other abrasive materials.
The operation of winding warp yarns onto a beam in preparation for weaving or warp knitting. also called warping.
The ability of a substance to be broken down by bacteria so that it can be returned to the environment without posing an environmental hazard.
A mechanical finishing process for fabrics to produce special effects such as high luster, glazing and moiré. fabric is passed between heated rolls under pressure.
A general term for sheer, lightweight, open weaves fabrics used for curtains and backing for heavy drapery.
Resistance to fading, the ability of a dyed material to retain its color when exposed to light, atmospheric gases or washing which can destroy its color. degree of colorfastness is tested by standardized procedures, depending on the end-use of the material.
A natural fiber obtained from the seedpod of the cotton plant. the most common types are american, chinese, egyptian and indian cotton.
A flat, smooth, glossy finish applied to the fabric by passing it through heavy rollers under pressure and usually heat. cire, chintz, moire, & glazing are examples of calendered finishes.
A plain weave, traditionally light weight cotton fabric with a luster on the surface . used for handkerchiefs underwear, shirts, aprons , tablecloths.
A strong, firm, tightly woven, durable fabric usually of cotton.it is usually plain weave but sometimes with a crosswise rib. it is produced in a variety of weights & used in a variety of products such as tents, awnings, sails, upholstery, footwear, jackets, trousers.
A yarn in which the fibers have been partially straightened and cleaned prior to spinning. The yarn is generally coarser and more uneven than a combed yarn.
A sturdy woven fabric with a steep pronounced double twill line .
A lightweight, plain weave fabric, with a colored warp and white weft . usually plain but may be in stripes, checks, or other patterns. often used in shirts, dresses children’s clothes.
A small pattern of squares or rectangles. it may be printed, yarn dyed ,cross dyed or woven into the fabric ( as a dobby or jacquard).
A sturdy, medium weight, twill fabric usually of cotton or a cotton blend it has often been used for summer weight military uniforms, sportswear and work clothes. it is often found in khaki and tan colors.
A glazed solid or printed fabric usually of cotton or a cotton blend
Having thick yarns.
Refers to a process in the manufacture of cotton and other staple yarns. The fiber is combed to remove foreign matter and the shorter, undesirable fibers,leaving longer, more desirable fibers that become straightened & aligned in parallel before spinning into yarn. combed yarns are finer, cleaner and more even than those that are not combed.
Refers to a tight, dense fabric with a firm hand.
1. A fabric with a surface rib effect resulting from the use of a heavier or plied yarn together with finer yarns.
2. A yarn made from two or more finer yarns twisted together
A strong, durable, woven fabric characterized by vertical cut pile stripes or cords with a velvet- like nap. corduroy is classified by the number of wales or cords to the inch. it is traditionally of cotton but may be cotton blends or other fibers as well. it is common in men’s women’s and children’s apparel especially trousers.
Fabric characterized by an allover crinkled, pebbly, or puckered surface the appearance may be a result of the use of high twist yarns, embossing, chemical treatment or a crepe weaves.
A two faced fabric in which one side is crepe and the other satin. also called satin-back crepe.
An uneven, wrinkle, or puckered effect on the fabric surface which can be created by a variety of mechanical or chemical finishes, or through the use of high twist yarns.
Refers to a corduroy fabric which has the pile cut in a weft wise direction, forming squares or rectangles on the surface.
A method of coloring fabric made with strategically placed yarns of 2 or more different fibers. a pre-planned effect becomes visible by dyeing the fabric in different dye baths, one for each of the types of yarn. for example a predominately rayon fabric may have a polyester yarn woven into it in a stripe pattern then dyed in a bath to which only the rayon is sensitive. the polyester stripe will be made to appear since it remains undyed. the stripe may then be colored by dyeing it again in a bath of a different color to which only the polyester is sensitive. heather effects may be achieved by mixing more than one fiber in a single yarn then cross dyeing.
A cross dyed fabric which has also had a design printed on it.
A finish that creates a planned irregular disturbance on the surface of the fabric, usually by mechanical means.
Jacquard fabric consisting of a velvet design on a plain ground. also called beaded velvet. used in evening wear and home furnishings
A firm, reversible jacquard weaves fabric. used in table linen, upholstery, draperies evening wear. commonly made of cotton linen silk or rayon or blends of these fibers.
A firm 2/1 or 3/1 right hand twill usually with a colored warp and white or natural weft. commonly made of cotton or cotton blends in a variety of weights.
A dyed fabric is printed with a chemical paste that bleaches out or “discharges” the color to allow white patterns on a dyed ground. by adding a dye to the paste that is not affected by the chemical it is possible to replace the discharged ground color with another color.
1. A fabric with small, repeating geometric patterns woven into the surface.
2. an attachment to a loom which controls the harness
A sheer fabric often a lawn or batiste, usually of cotton or cotton blend, with a small dot pattern. the dots are usually woven into the fabric but may be flocked or printed . used for curtains, children’s clothes, dresses.
A fabric which resists the penetration of down. it may be closely woven to be downproof by nature or may be coated to make it down proof.
A strong, medium to heavy weight 2×1 or 3×1 warp faced twill usually
To dye means to apply color to a yarn or textile other than print. The most common processes are yarn-dyeing or piece-dyeing.
Refers to fabrics which are restored to their original appearance after laundering with little or no ironing. generally such fabrics can be machine washed and tumble dried.
Cotton from egypt characterized by its strong, fine, long and lustrous fibers.
Fabric with a raised design that has been engraved on a metal cylinder then impressed on the fabric with heat and pressure.
A fabric decorated with needlework stitching of yarn or thread may be done by hand or machine.
A plain weave fabric with a warp yarn of one color alternating with a warp yarn of white or a second color. often the weft yarns alternate with the same 2 colors forming a mini check design. used most commonly in shirtings.
Refers to the process of washing with a cellulase enzyme -one which attacks the cellulose in the fabric-giving it a used, worn appearance and a desirable soft hand . the effect is similar to stone washing but is less damaging to the fabric. it is sometimes called bio-washing. done commonly with denim or other cottons and fabrics of lyocell.
Refers to a fabric which will burn only when the source of the flame remains lit, and will quickly self-extinguish when the source is removed. standards for flame resistance are generally set according to the end use of the fabric. flame resistance may be the result of the nature of the fiber or of a chemical finish put on the fabric.
A light to medium weight woven fabric with a soft, slightly napped surface.
A fabric with a thick, soft nap or pile resembling sheep’s wool. Commonly a knit which has been brushed and sheared but may be woven.
A method of applying short fibers rather than color to the entire surface of the fabric. the fabric may be printed with an adhesive and the fiber dusted, onto it ,or the fibers may be contained in the adhesive or the fibers may be applied electrostatically to hold them erect.
A tightly woven durable twill, usually 2×2 right handed, with a distinct twill line. common used in men’s and women’s trousers, rainwear and a variety of other uses.
A loosely woven, thin, sheer, plain weave fabric usually cotton.
Light to medium weight, plain weave fabric. it is usually a cotton or cotton blend yarn dye in a color and white or 2 color check design.
A finish resulting in a smooth, glossy surface on the fabric. usually the fabric is first treated with resin, wax, starch or other substances then calendared.
An unfinished fabric just off the loom.
Refers to fabrics with a lot of protruding fibers on the surface.
A broken twill weave in which the twill line reverses regularly forming zig zag v’s. also called fishbone.
Refers to fabrics woven with a relatively high thread count, resulting in a dense, tight fabric.
Refers to yarn that are manufactured with a relatively high number of turns per inch .This may be done to increase the yarn strength or to give the fabric a crepey texture or hand.
A pique fabric with a waffle or cellular appearance. may be woven or knit.
A pointed broken check design . most commonly a woven produced with contrasting yarns in groups or multiples of 4, woven in a 2×2 twill. Sometimes called dogs tooth.
A type of blue dyestuff originally obtained from the indigo plant but now produced synthetically. used for denim.
Refers to a fabric which has been piece dyed with indigo dye.
Refers to yarn dyed fabrics using a combinations of indigo dyed yarns and yarns of other colors together in the design.
Refers to printing done on an indigo denim, indigo chambray, or indigo dyed fabric.
A double face knit fabric with 1×1 rib on each side. usually firm and closely knit.
A system of weaving that utilizes a highly versatile pattern mechanism to permit the production of large, intricate patterns.
A thin, light, crisp, plain weave fabric usually of cotton, cotton bends or linen. more firm than batiste or voile but less firm than organdy.
A weave in which the warp yarns are arranged in pairs with one twisted around the other between picks of filling yarn. adds firmness and strength to an open-weave fabric and prevents slippage of yarns.
The degree of resistance of dyed textile materials to the color-destroying influence of sunlight..
A treatment of cotton yarn or fabric to increase its luster and affinity for dyes.
A variation in tone or mottled look . may be done by mixing fibers or yarn of different colors together, printing of the top before spinning the yarn, or cross dyeing the fabric.
Extremely fine synthetic fiber used to produce soft, lightweight fabrics . microfiber is often defined as fibers of less than 1 denier per filament but the term is used loosely in the industry. may be polyester, nylon, acrylic, rayon or other fibers. used for rainwear, outerwear and various other types of apparel.
A woven fabric with a characteristic grainy surface and often a spongy hand. generally made with high twist yarn in a crepe weave. used in women’s suits, dresses etc.
Soft, thin, plain weave fabric usually of cotton or silk.
Man-made fiber in which the forming substance is a synthetic polyamide. these fibers generally exhibit excellent strength, flexibility, elasticity and abrasion resistance. a hydrophilic.
Small knots of fiber embedded in the yarn. may be intentional or unintentional.
A high speed yarn spinning process that creates yarn by transferring twist from previously formed yarn to fiber or sliver continuously fed into the spinning machine. the twisting may be done by mechanical methods, rotors or air jets.
A thin, very stiff, lightweight, plain weave fabric usually of cotton or cotton blends. it is often treated to make the crisp finish permanent. used for apparel trim such as collars and cuffs, evening wear, dresses, curtains.
A coarse, strong, plain weave, medium to heavy weight fabric, usually of cotton . used for industrial purposes, drapery and upholstery..
A medium to heavy weight fabric with wide horizontal ribs . may be knit or woven. used for women’s apparel, upholstery, drapery.
A fabric with a single filling yarn woven over and under 2 smaller warp yarns. commonly found in cotton shirtings but oxfords are produced in a wide variety of fibers and weights for many uses, mainly in apparel..
A plain weave fabric traditionally of cotton or wool. used for summer suitings and dresses.
A soft, sueded finish resulting from sanding or chemical treatment of the fabric.
A soft sueded hand that suggests the downy skin of a peach.
A smooth, closely woven, plain weave fabric often of cotton. often used as a print cloth for apparel and sheets.
An insoluble colorant is applied to the fabric as a paste or emulsion, heat cured and bound to the fabric with resins or binders. the curing process can be controlled so the color will fade after washing, giving the garments a used worn look..
An insoluble colorant is printed on the fabric as a paste or emulsion, heat cured and bound to the fabric with resins or binders. allows for the printing of fabrics with fiber blends that would be otherwise difficult or expensive to print…
A fine long staple cotton, originally derived by crossing american and egyptian species. named for pima county arizona. used in fine shirtings and dress fabrics.
Fabric with a very narrow wale or rib. used in describing piques, corduroys or other ribbed fabrics. also called baby cord.
An oxford weave fabric using fine yarns resulting in a small oxford texture.
A design using fine line vertical stripes, usually light color stripes on a dark ground..
A fabric characterized by a prominent, all-over geometric texture. it is most commonly woven on a dobby loom but it is also produced as a double knit. the most common textures are cords birdseye, waffle, honeycomb and bullseye. produced in a variety of weights and fibers.
A pattern of stripes and bars that cross each other at right angles.
The simplest form of weaving in which a pick ( filling yarn) passes over the first end ( warp yarn), under the second and on continuously, over one end and under the next. the next pick alternates , passing under the first end, over the second , and on continuously under and over each end . each filling row alternates, thus extending the fabric. also called a one up one down weave.
A plain weave fabric with a fine, crosswise rib, the result of using finer warp yarns and heavier weft yarns and a higher thread count in the warp than the weft . usually medium weight. made in a variety of fibers but common in cotton and cotton blends . a common shirting fabric..
The fabric is allowed to shrink during finishing to reduce residual shrinkage in the final product.
Fabric which has been made ready for dyeing or printing by performing all preliminary processes on the greige such as singeing, desizing, scouring, and bleaching.
Refers to fabrics which have been first printed then overdyed allowing the design to show through.
Dyeing of the fabric in the piece form, after the material has been woven.
A single filling thread carried by the weft insertion device of the weaving loom. the picks interlace with the warp ends to form a woven fabric.
The tendency of fibers to work loose from a fabric surface and form balled or matted particles of fiber that remain attached to the surface of the fabric.
Man-made fiber in which the forming substance is any synthetic polymer.
Man-made fiber composed of regenerated cellulose. created to simulate silk and is often lustrous.
Water soluble dyes that bond well to cellulosic and nylon fibers. provide good brightness and colorfastness.
1. Any fabric with a cord or ridge effect .
2. a knit fabric made with plain stitches alternating with purl stitches. rib knits have natural stretch properties.
A yarn spinning method in which roving (a thin strand of fiber with very little twist) is fed to a “traveler” with rotates around the edge of a ring. inside the ring is a faster rotating bobbin .The process simultaneously twists the roving into yarn and winds it around the bobbin.ring spun yarns are generally stronger than open end yarns.
A woven fabric with corded yarns spaced at regular intervals in both the warp and filling, forming squares on the surface of the fabric. originally intended so a tear in the fabric would not spread. used mainly for outerwear and active wear.
A method of printing by passing the fabric over metal rollers on which the design has been engraved. one roller is used for each color. used for printing long runs with good register and a clear, sharp design.
In screen printing a separate screen is created for each color . the open mesh part of the screen corresponds to the area to be printed in that color. the areas where color is not to pass through are blocked. dye paste is forced through the open mesh area with a squeegee in rotary screen printing the squeegees are contained within cylindrical screens aligned one after the other, and the fabric moves continuously. rotary printing is a much faster process than flat screen printing but the pattern repeat is limited by the circumference of the cylinders.
A finishing process in which the fabric is washed with sand or another abrasive material to produce a soft, sueded hand and a faded appearance.
A trademarked finishing process which compresses the fabric to reduce its residual shrinkage to not more than 1 percent.
A smooth, strong, lustrous satin weave fabric made with cotton or other spun yarns. in a warp face satin, the most common, the filling yarns cross over one and under several warp yarns, thus mainly the warp yarns are visible on the face. in a filling face satin, the filling yarns cross under one and over several warp yarns thus the mainly the filling yarns are visible on the face.
A smooth strong, lustrous satin weave fabric made with silk or manufactured filament yarns in a warp face satin, the most common, the filling yarns cross over one and under several warp yarns, thus mainly the warp yarns are visible on the face. in a filling face satin, the filling yarns cross under one and over several warp yarns thus the mainly the filling yarns are visible on the face. some satins have a filament yarn face and spun yarn back..
Stripes in a fabric formed by a satin weave, often alternating with sheer plain weave stripes.
A water repellent and oil repellent finish trademarked by 3m company.
A lightweight fabric with puckered stripes made by weaving with some of the warp yarns tight and some loose . the loose warp threads become crinkled. frequently made in yarn dye stripes and plaids. often made of cotton or a cotton blend but can be in a variety of fibers.
Fabric that has been lightly or partially bleached.
A smooth faced 2×2 twill weave fabric. traditionally of wool but may be of other fibers.
A thin, fine , semi transparent fabric.
A plain weave fabric with even or close to even thread counts in warp and weft . often of cotton. carded yarn versions are used for inexpensive apparel, furniture covers and as a base for laminates. finer yarns and higher counts may be used for bed sheets.
Refers to fabric using yarn with uneven areas, i.e. with a thick and thin appearance occurring at irregular intervals.
A process of washing the fabric with pebbles to alter the hand and produce fading of the color.
Refers to a woven or knit fabric with elastic properties in both directions, usually the result of using spandex yarn.
Refers to a woven fabric with elastic properties in the warp direction only, usually the result of using spandex yarn in the warp.
Refers to a woven fabric with elastic properties in the weft ( filling) direction only, usually the result of using spandex yarn in the weft.
A design dominated by lines or bands of contrasting color or texture.
A measurement of when sewn fabrics pull apart at the seams.
The narrow edge of woven fabric that runs parallel to the warp. it is made of stronger yarns in a tighter construction than the body of the fabric to prevent raveling.
Transparent, lightweight fabrics of different constructions and yarns, especially those of silk and synthetics.
Each fabric has a tendency to form creases but also to naturally smooth them out depending on the elasticity of fiber, the twisting and the weaving technique.
Finish will enhance a fabric’s look for a particular application. this finish will relax many fabrics for improved draping in end- uses such as bedspreads and draperies.
Natural or synthetic fibers which are cut into smaller lengths to be processed for spinning systems. the term ‘staple’ is used in the textile industry to distinguish these materials from fibers manufactured from filament.
Synthetics are man-made fibers produced by putting together simple chemical elements to make complex chemical compounds. synthetic fibers are divided into monofilaments (endless thread) and staple fibers (cut into desired length , either alone of in blends and mixtures).compared to natural fibers, synthetic fibers have some advantages. the production of the fiber can be custom-tailored to its application. the dyes can be locked into the yarn. the production does not depend on climate and location.
A water repellent, stain resistant finish applied to fabric . trademark of du pont co.
1. Referring to the arrangement or character of the yarns on the surface of the fabric. often used to describe fabrics with surface interest the result of using novelty yarns or novelty weaves such as dobby or jacquard weaves.
2. a term used to describe yarn that has been processed to add bulk stretch or texture such as crimped entangled and loop yarns
A fabric with a mottled appearance, made from a filament yarn with varying thickness.
A hand method of dyeing that involves gathering small portions of the fabric and tying them tightly before dyeing. the tied areas resist penetration of the dye, resulting in irregular patterns. also refers to similar designs created by machine methods.
A fiber dyeing method in which dye in applied to combed fibers in an untwisted or loosely twisted rope form (called top or sliver ). sometimes dye is applied or printed on the fiber at regular intervals to give a melange effect. top dyeing results in good colorfastness.
A general term for a woven fabric made with a twill weave, a basic weave characterized by diagonal lines on the face of the fabric.
The force required to begin or to continue a tear in a fabric under specified conditions.
The resistance to deformation within a fabric subjected to tension by an external force.
Twisted or plyed yarns are composed by two or more yarns twisted together. many different effects can be achieved through twisting. the degree of twisting put on the yarns when woven can result in soft and fluent fabrics, or in fabrics with increased body and structure.
Ability of a material to retain strength and resist deterioration from exposure to sunlight.
A corduroy with the pile left uncut. the result is a strong woven fabric with a warpwise rib.
A warp pile woven fabric with short dense cut pile that produces a plush fabric appearance and soft texture.
A sheer, plain weave fabric with a crisp, wiry hand resulting from the use of high twist yarns . most commonly made of cotton, but also of silk, rayon, wool, acetate or other fibers.
The yarns in all woven fabrics that run lengthwise and parallel to the selvage and is interwoven with the filling.
In a woven fabric, the yarn running from selvage to selvage at right angles to the warp. each crosswise length is called a pick.
A fabric characterized by a honeycomb texture or small squares similar to the surface of a waffle. may be woven or knit.
The warp yarns are printed with a design before weaving. after weaving the design then has a hazy shadowy effect.
Fabrics that have been treated to resist wetting and shed water by causing the water to bead on the surface. it does not close the pores of the fabric as waterproof treatments do, so the fabrics are comfortable to wear. it will offer protection in a light shower but not heavy rain. water repellency may be added by treating the fabric with fluorocarbon chemicals, wax, silicone or resins. sometimes called water resistant.
Refers to fabrics that have been coated, laminated, or otherwise treated to prevent the penetration of water.
Refers to fabric that has been coated with wax or paraffin to alter the hand or appearance or to make the fabric water repellent.
A design that looks like a windowpane, with narrow bands of one color forming an over-check that encloses rectangles of another ground color.
A fabric that has been treated to resist the formation of wrinkles
Fabrics which have had the yarns colored before the fabric is woven. used to produce stripes plaids or tapestries.
A fabric which has been first yarn dyed, then piece dyed in a lighter shade that allows the yarn dye pattern to show through.